Penetration Grade Bitumen is a standard bitumen usually used as a Paving Grade Bitumen essential for road construction and for the production of asphalt pavements with superior properties, and it's very important once it bounds the aggregates and creates a unique cohesion and stability to the bituminous mix. This grade of Bitumen is mainly used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses. Penetration Grade Bitumen is petroleum grade bitumen, manufactured from fractional / vacuum distillation of crude oil. ​ ​
Penetration Grade bitumens are specified by the penetration and softening point test. Designation is by penetration range only. The penetration grade bitumens have a thermoplastic property which causes the material to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower temperatures. This unique temperature/viscosity relationship is important when determining the performance parameters such as the adhesion, rheology, durability and application temperatures of bitumen. ​ ​
BTA supplies all Penetration Graded Bitumen Grades in correspondence to ASTM D946-09 and EN 12591-2009, including:​ ​
ASTM D946-09 Grades:​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 40-50​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 60-70​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 85-100​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 120-150​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 200-300​ ​

EN 12591-2009 Grades:​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 20/30​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 30/45​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 35/50​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 40/60​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 50/70​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 70/100​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 100/150​
  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 160/220


Blown bitumen grades or Oxidized Bitumen are produced by passing air through the penetration grades. This process gives the bitumen more rubbery properties than its original formula and they are simply harder bitumen. Hard bitumen under controlled temperature conditions is widely used as an anti-slip layer compound in the piling industry, for manufacture of roofing felts, the roofing and waterproofing industries, for sound dampening felts and under carriage sealant in the automotive industry, electric cable joint protection, joint filling compound, sealant compound and many others. Also used in sealing saw cuts and joints where expected movements are minimum. It is also used in the manufacturing of bituminous marine mastic for the oil & gas pipeline joints. ​ ​
The most popular grades are; grades 95/25, 85/25, 90/40, and 115/15. Oxidized Bitumen high softening temperatures qualify them as excellent sealant for prevention from bleeding in high temperature applications. Blown Grade Bitumen shall be broken up into small pieces (for blown grade in molded cake form) and heated slowly to the application temperature of 220ºC to 230ºC. Oxidized Bitumen is predominantly used in the piling industry as an anti slip compound for the manufacture of under carriage sealants in the automobile industry. It is also used as a sealant compound, as a joint filling compound apart from being used in the manufacture of roofing felts and sound dampening felts. Further, Oxidized Bitumen is used in the manufacture of bituminous marine mastic, which is required for the oil and gas pipeline joints. This Oxidized Bitumen is available in different grades like 95/25, 85/25, 75/25, 90/40 and 115/15. ​ ​
Some of the major advantages of Oxidized Bitumen are that it is completely water resistant, highly flexible and durable. Further, it is chemically very stable. Oxidized bitumen is a very flexible compound that is not only chemically stable but also a very durable compound apart from being completely water resistant. Lastly, Oxidized Bitumen has some very prominent technical advantages that makes it a very sought after compound in various applications.


Viscosity Grade Bitumen (Asphalt) is a standard grade Bitumen usually used as a Paving Grade Bitumen suitable for road construction and for the production of asphalt pavements with superior properties. This grade of Bitumen is mainly used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses, and possesses characteristics and qualities unique sand quite different from other agents. They achieve very flexible and tenacious connections with other materials due mainly to viscoelastic response of bitumen, which behavior depends on how fast charges are applied. ​ ​
Viscosity Grade Bitumen is petroleum grade bitumen, manufactured from fractional / vacuum distillation of crude oil, which practical appliance and behavior varies according to its temperature. Viscosity Grade bitumens are specified by the methods described in ASTM Standard D3381-09 and AASHTO M226-80 (2008). Viscosity Graded specifications covers bitumen (asphalt) graded by Viscosity at 60 C (140 °F).​ ​
Viscosity grade bitumens have a thermoplastic property which causes the material to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower temperatures. This unique temperature/ viscosity relationship is important when determining the performance parameters such as the adhesion, rheology, durability and application temperatures of bitumen. In the Viscosity Graded Bitumen specifications further special emphasizes is placed on the Bitumen ductility. ​ ​
Standard Viscosity Grade Bitumen Binders include:​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AC-2.5 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AC-5 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AC-10 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AC-20 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AC-30​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AC-40 ​

RTFOT Viscosity Grade Bitumen Binders include: ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AR-1000 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AR-2000 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AR-4000 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AR-8000 ​
  • Viscosity Grade Bitumen AR-16000


Pavements designed and constructed for heavy duty traffic and extreme weather conditions require specially designed engineered Bitumen Grades. ​ ​
By changing the characteristics of normal bitumen with the addition of a polymer, either they are of elastomeric nature or elastomeric, we succeed to obtain bitumen that allow the mixture to be more cohesive, with much more strength and significant higher resistance to parameters like fatigue and permanent deformations for road pavements.​ ​
PMB's qualities:​
  • Greater Rigidity​
  • Better resistance to permanent deformation​
  • Higher Resistance to spreading cracks​
  • Greater water resistance​
  • Much higher durability​

The specifications and standards of most countries focus solely on the use of SBS, whereas the use of elastomers, plastomers and other materials are highly beneficial in the design of specific binders. BTA has the expertise and knowledge to assist to formulate the best possible binder for the intended application at the best possible price, either with the above solutions or custom design JMF (Job Mix Formulations) with other possible alternatives.


Bitumen is ‘cutback’ by adding controlled amounts of petroleum distillates such as kerosene. This is done to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen temporarily so it can penetrate pavements more effectively or to allow spraying at temperatures that are too cold for successful sprayed sealing with neat bitumen. The materials used to cutback bitumen will evaporate after application to leave the remaining material similar in hardness to the original bitumen.​
Applications of Cutback Bitumen in Bituminous (asphalt) Pavement Construction and Maintenance, Prime and Tack Coating, Prime Sealing, Spray Sealing


Bitumen Emulsions have being developed and exponentially increased sinned they were created in 1900. Estimated presently at 20% of the global bitumen use, bitumen emulsions are basically an O/W – Oil on Water solution – A dispersion of bitumen particles on water, stabilized with the addiction of surfactants – Surface active agents – or most commonly known as emulsifiers, that will permit the bitumen to de diluted in water. They are primarily used for tack coats for use in between hot mix asphalt layers and prime coats for thin hot mix surfacing layers or a chip seal pavements.​
Bitumen emulsions are divided into three categories:​
  • Anionic with negatively charged globules​
  • Cationic with positively charged globules​
  • Non-ionic with neutral globules.​

Emulsified Bitumen usually consists of bitumen droplets suspended in water. This dispersion under normal circumstances would not take place, since everyone knows that oil and water don’t mix, but if an emulsifying agent is added to the water the asphalt will remain dispersed. Most emulsion are used for surface treatments. Emulsions enable much lower application temperatures to be used. Application temperatures range from 45°C to 70°C. This is much lower than the 150 to 190°C used for hot mix asphalt cements. The lower application temperatures will not damage the asphalt and are much safer for field personnel.​


What is cold mix asphalt?​

Cold mix asphalt is a combination of mineral aggregate and emulsified or cutback asphalt with additives. Aggregates can be made with virgin materials or reclaimed asphalt pavement, also known as asphalt millings. The latter option is commonly used when trying to save money. Cold mixes can be made on site or at a central location and then transported to the site. The flexibility to create this type of asphalt off-site is particularly useful for remote roads. Cold mix asphalt is commonly used on rural or low traffic roads. Cold mixes are commonly used to repair worn pavement and potholes when there is no hot mix readily available. It is also used for temporary patches. This type of asphalt can be used for binder, base, top courses, and leveling, as well as structural overlays. Cold-mix materials are durable and flexible, allowing them to self-heal even under pressure from freeze-thaw cycles. This makes cold mixes ideal for non-engineered roads.​ ​

What are the benefits of cold mix asphalt paving?​

There are a number of benefits associated with cold mix asphalt, including:​
  • Flexible material that is strong enough to withstand temperature fluctuations.​
  • It can be mixed on site or off site and then transported to location.​
  • Eco-friendly option made from water-based materials at ambient temperatures, which reduces emissions, energy consumption and toxic fumes.​
  • Minimal material and transportation costs.​
  • Easy to maintain and recycle.​
  • Cost-effective solution for paving or repairing rural roads that are nowhere near a hot mix plant.


White spirit (UK)[note 1] or mineral spirits (US, Canada), also known as mineral turpentine (AU/NZ), turpentine substitute, petroleum spirits, solvent naphtha (petroleum), Varsol, Stoddard solvent, or, generically, "paint thinner", is a petroleum-derived clear liquid used as a common organic solvent in painting.​
A mixture of aliphatic, open-chain or alicyclic C7 to C12 hydrocarbons, white spirit is insoluble in water and is used as an extraction solvent, as a cleaning solvent, as a degreasing solvent and as a solvent in aerosols, paints, wood preservatives, lacquers, varnishes, and asphalt products. In western Europe about 60% of the total white spirit consumption is used in paints, lacquers and varnishes. White spirit is the most widely used solvent in the paint industry. In households, white spirit is commonly used to clean paint brushes after use, to clean auto parts and tools, as a starter fluid for charcoal grills, to remove adhesive residue from non-porous surfaces, and many other common tasks.​

Types and grades​

Three different types and three different grades of white spirit exist. The type refers to whether the solvent has been subjected to hydrodesulfurization (removal of sulfur) alone (type 1), solvent extraction (type 2) or hydrogenation (type 3). Each type comprises three grades: low flash grade, regular grade, and high flash grade (flash refers to flash point). The grade is determined by the crude oil used as the starting material and the conditions of distillation. In addition there is type 0, which is defined as distillation fraction with no further treatment, consisting predominantly of saturated C9 to C12 hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 140–200 °C.​


Base oils are used to manufacture products including lubricating greases, motor oil and metal processing fluids. Different products require different compositions and properties in the oil. One of the most important factors is the liquid’s viscosity at various temperatures. Whether or not a crude oil is suitable to be made into a base oil is determined by the concentration of base oil molecules as well as how easily these can be extracted.​ ​
Chemical substances – additives – are added to the base oil in order to meet the quality requirements for the end products in terms of, for example, friction and cleaning properties. Certain types of motor oils contain more than twenty percent additives.​


According to the American Petroleum Institute (API), base oils fall into five main groups. This breakdown is based on the refining method and the base oil’s properties in terms of, among other things, viscosity and the proportion of saturates and sulfur content.​
Group I: base stocks contain less than 90 percent saturates and/or greater than 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120​ ​
Group II: base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120​ ​
Group III: base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 120​ ​
Group IV: Consists of synthetic oils made of Poly-alpha-olefins PAO. ​ ​
Group V: Any type of base oil other than mentioned in the previously defined groups.


Rubber process oil, both synthetic and natural are commercially used to Produce products from rubber bands to a toy to the giant tires for various vehicles including aircrafts. Rubber Process Oils are used during mixing of rubber compounds. These help in improving the dispersion of fillers and flow characteristics of the compound during further processing.​

Types of rubber process oils

Rubber Process Oils are specially developed taking into consideration the type of rubber and the end product Applications. The range of them are broadly divided in following Three categories.​ ​
Aromatic types: The primary Characteristics of aromatic Hydrocarbons are the presence of the double bonded mix ring carbon structure.​
Naphthenic types: Naphthenic are a class of hydrocarbons also referred to as ‘cycloparaffins’. Though their structure is similar to the aromatic ring, these are single bonded thus having a stable structure​.
Paraffinic types: This class of hydrocarbons constitutes branched chain or straight linked hydrocarbon molecules of various viscosities. As the chain length increases, the viscosity increases and the rubber process oil becomes more viscous.


Description of Green Rubber Process Oil​

Green Rubber Process Oil is a green rubber oil (natural friendly oil) with a high aromatic content, environmental protection, non-toxic, non-carcinogenic characteristics, that we use as a substitute for existing aromatic oil. Its high viscosity gravity constant leads to reduction in heat buildup and rotational resistance during usage of tires. Such characteristics enable our Rubber Process Oil for using in production of tire and rubbers.​

Application of Green Rubber Process Oil​

Rubber process oil is used in industry ink formulations, isolation manufacturers, automobile tire making factory, rubber manufacturer, shoes, flooring, cable and any other industrial interface.


Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers. In addition to that, almost all lubricating oils contain corrosion (GB: rust) and oxidation inhibitors. Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines. The main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge (one of the functions of dispersants) and varnish (detergents). It also neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant (detergents), improves sealing of piston rings, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts.​
Motor oils today are blended using base oils composed of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, that means organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, or polyalphaolefins (PAO) or their mixtures in various proportions, sometimes with up to 20% by weight of esters for better dissolution of additives.​


Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines, which power cars, motorcycles, lawnmowers, engine-generators, and many other machines.


Paraffin wax is a white or colorless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F); its boiling point is >370 °C (698 °F). Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles; dyed paraffin wax can be made into crayons. It is distinct from kerosene and other petroleum products that are sometimes called paraffin.​
Un-dyed, unscented paraffin candles are odorless and bluish-white. Paraffin wax was first created in 1830 in Germany, and marked a major advancement in candle making technology, as it burned more cleanly and reliably than tallow candles and was cheaper to produce. In chemistry, paraffin is used synonymously with alkane, indicating hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. The name is derived from Latin parum ("barely") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity", referring to paraffin's unreactive nature.​​


In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by adding branching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVA copolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffin with a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. In a pathology laboratory, paraffin wax is used to impregnate tissue prior to sectioning thin samples of tissue. Other uses: Candle-making, Wax carving, Coatings for waxed paper or cloth, Food-grade paraffin wax, etc.


Slack wax is petroleum product; the raw material of paraffin wax, Slack wax is a mixture of oil and wax in yellow or brown color, processed by pressing to decrease the oil content and discoloring by special powders after heating to produce paraffin wax. Slack wax verifies from light to heavy grades based on its melting point. Melting point 50-52 C is categorized in light grades and 53-55 C is heavy grade .All the types of slack wax are used as blending components or waterproofing agents in the manufacture of various industrial products.​​

Uses of slack wax​

Slack wax is used in emulsions, construction board, matches, candles, rust protective products and moisture vapor barriers, polishes, inks, carbon paper and externally can be applied as good dust suppressants or controlled-release agents for various chemical and fertilizers.


Foots oil (residue wax)​

is the remaining residue when process of manufacturing paraffin wax from slack wax is finished , the main usage is for matches industry since its oil content is about 50% and has strong odor and color is quite brown .Residue wax (foots oil) is final remained product of slack wax after pressing and de-coloring . residue wax(foots oil) is mix of oil and slack wax.Residue Wax, formally known as Foots oil is a commodity derived from the production of semi refined paraffin wax, having almost 60% result from 100% of slacks provided by the oil refineries .​

Uses of residue wax (foots oil)​

Brown color, high oiled wax named residue wax (foots oil) used for matches making, lubricants, explosive, fire work.Foots Oil can be used as hydrophobia impregnation material, fuel brick component, raw material for production of grease lubricants, conservation oils , lubricants ,tire, rubber and shoe soil industries.Residue wax (foots oil) is also used for Rubber Industries-Tire Industry-Shoe Industry-Plastic Industries-Polish-Match Box-Grease...


Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.​
After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for many ailments, as well as cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant and remains widely used in cosmetic skin care.


Normal Paraffin is a clear liquid that are made up of saturated hydrocarbons with a straight-chain structure. They are either extracted from kerosene or through the “Fischer-Tropsch process” at gas-to-liquid production sites. Paraffin (or called kerosene) is a mixture of hydrocarbons; it usually consists of about 10 different hydrocarbons, each containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule; the constituents include n-dodecane, alkyl benzene, and naphthalene and its derivatives. Kerosene is obtained from crude oil by distillation and is used as a fuel for heating and aircraft. N-paraffin C10-C13 is a colorless liquid with a mild odor. It is insoluble in water. It is slow-evaporating, environmentally adapted (fully bio-degradable) with negligible sooting (like lamp oil).Normal Paraffin is the major raw material for the manufacture of the LAB.

Applications of Normal Paraffin​​​

N-Paraffin is mainly used in the production of Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) as well as in the manufacture of chlorinated paraffin wax, plasticizers, lamp oils, BBQ lighters, barbeque starters, sealant, adhesives, manufacture of alcohol derivatives, cutting oils, lubricants and metalworking products.


Microcrystalline Wax is a specific type of wax produced by de-oiling petroleum. It is used in cosmetics and beauty products as a viscosity agent, binder and emollient, and is often considered an alternative to paraffin wax. Unlike paraffin wax, Microcrystalline Wax has fine crystals, and is generally darker, more viscous, denser, tackier and more elastic than paraffin waxes. It has elastic and adhesive characteristics, which are related to its non-straight chain components. Microcrystalline Wax's crystal structure is small and thin, making these waxes more flexible than paraffin wax as well.​
Microcrystalline Wax is seen in a variety of cosmetics and beauty products for the following uses: Creams and Lotions as a viscosity builder and emollient; Waterproof Mascara as a water repelling agent; Eyeliner pencils as a structure formation agent; Pressed powder as a binder to add softness; Lipsticks for structure formation; Hair Care as an ingredient in styling waxes.


A wax emulsion is a stable mixture of one or more waxes in water. Waxes and water are normally immiscible but can be brought together stably by the use of surfactants and a clever preparation process. Strictly speaking a wax emulsion should be called a wax dispersion since the wax is solid at room temperature. A wide range of emulsions based on different waxes and blends thereof are available, depending on the final application. Waxes that are found in wax emulsions can be of natural or synthetic origin. Common non-fossil natural waxes are carnaubawax, beeswax, candelilla wax or ricebran wax. Paraffin, microcrystalline and montanwax are the most used fossil natural waxes that are found in emulsions. Synthetic waxes that are used include (oxidised) LDPE and HDPE, maelic grafted PP and Fischer-Tropsch waxes.​
Applications​ Wax emulsions are widely used in a variety of technical applications like printing inks & lacquers, leather and textiles, paper, wood, metal, polishes, glass fiber sizing, glass bottle protection among other things. The most important properties that can be improved by the addition of wax emulsions are matting & gloss, hydrophobicity, soft touch, abrasion & rub resistance, scratch resistance, release, corrosion protection and anti-blocking.Emulsions based on natural waxes are used for coating fruits and candies and crop protection. Synthetic wax based emulsions are often used in food packaging. Wax emulsions based on beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax are used in creams and ointments.


Liquid paraffin, also known as paraffinum liquidum, is a very highly refined mineral oil used in cosmetics and for medical purposes. This is a UK definition (British Pharmacopoeia) and the term may have different uses in other countries. The cosmetic or medicinal liquid paraffin should not be confused with the paraffin (or kerosene) used as a fuel. Liquid paraffin is considered to have a limited usefulness as an occasional laxative, but is unsuitable for regular use as it can seep from the anus and cause irritation.